(海洋cms怎么样)兼捕与“幽灵渔具”怎么破_FAO渔业委员会第33届会议讨论解决方案

2022-04-05 0 965

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译者按:兼捕和幽灵渔具等问题,长期困扰着国际上的渔业可持续性。最近,FAO渔业委员会的第33届会议在召开期间,讨论了兼捕和“幽灵渔具”缠绕非目标鱼种解决方案。

兼捕渔获物(bycatch),是指与主要捕捞对象一起捕获的其他种类渔获物,这种“渔获”被戏称为“鱼祸”。比如,在商业捕渔中,总有或多或少的非目标的海生动物被一股脑儿捞了上来——鲨鱼、海豚、鲸、鼠海豚,甚至有的时候海鸟都会不幸落网(参见“海鸟自杀事件”)。本文指出每年,至少有650,000只海洋哺乳动物、700,000只海鸟和数以千计只海龟被渔具捕获。

“幽灵渔具”(Ghost Gear),是指被遗失或被丢弃的渔具,它们为海洋环境以及海洋生物的生存造成严重的威胁,甚至对在海边游玩、被卷入海中的人类也可能带来生命危险。本文中就指出,“幽灵渔具”缠绕对海洋生物的影响至少是其他海洋垃圾的三倍。

地球是人类共同的家园。如何海洋的实现可持续发展?为了推动海洋可持续发展,如为保护海洋迁徙动物、珍稀濒危物种、海洋生物多样性等,中国绿发会启动支持社区努力的民间保护地体系,保护对象包括滨海湿地、迁徙鸟类(如东方白鹳/遗鸥/黑脸琵鹭)、伪虎鲸、斑海豹、海龟、珊瑚、红树林等等;以及 “筷走筷走”、“减塑捡塑”、“绿瓶行动”等倡导,减少海洋垃圾污染。特此将CMS官网发布的此次会议通讯翻译发布在绿会(ChinaGreenExpress)上,与读者分享。

译/Cat  译者按+核/Linda  编/Angel  

(海洋cms怎么样)兼捕与“幽灵渔具”怎么破_FAO渔业委员会第33届会议讨论解决方案

图:Greenpeace / Carè / Marine Photobank

Side Event on Solutions to Bycatch and Entanglement in Ghost Gear held at FAO COFI33

联合国粮食及农业组织渔业委员会第33届会议边会:

兼捕和“幽灵渔具”缠绕非目标鱼种解决方案

Rome/Bonn, 20 July 2018 – On 12 July, during the 33rd Session of the FAO Committee on Fisheries (COFI33), held in Rome, management solutions for ghost gear, also known as abandoned, lost, or otherwise discarded fishing gear (ALDFG), and bycatch were discussed in a side event.

【罗马/波恩,2018年7月20日讯】7月12日,联合国粮食及农业组织(FAO,简称粮农组织)渔业委员会第三十三届会议(COFI33)在罗马召开期间,边会上讨论了“幽灵渔具”和兼捕的管理方法,“幽灵渔具”也称为ALDFG(即废弃、丢失或以其他方式丢弃的渔具)。

FAO Member States Vanuatu, Samoa, Fiji, Palau, Belgium, the Netherlands, New Zealand, and Panama served as hosts for the event organized in collaboration with FAO, the International Whaling Commission (IWC), World Animal Protection, WWF and CMS. The issue of ghost gear, which is virtually ubiquitous in all fisheries worldwide, has significant economic, social and environmental consequences, both as a form of marine debris and because of the risk it poses for incidental capture or entanglement of marine life.  

活动由粮农组织成员国瓦努阿图、萨摩亚、斐济、帕劳、比利时、荷兰,新西兰和巴拿马是活动的主办方,与粮农组织、国际捕鲸委员会(IWC)、世界动物保护组织(World Animal Protection)、世界自然基金会(WWF)和《保护野生动物迁徙物种公约》(CMS)合作举办。“幽灵渔具”问题在全球渔业上几乎无处不在,具有重大的经济、社会和环境后果,它是一种海洋废弃物,由于无意捕获或缠绕海洋生物而带来风险。

The side event underscored the importance of designing a global strategy collectively to address ghost gear and its impacts and encouraged FAO Member States to develop national plans to prevent, reduce and eliminate ghost gear. The session also provided the opportunity to discuss whether proposed bycatch mitigation measures have proven effective without reducing target catch, and to determine what areas, such as data collection, monitoring or implementation, may benefit from technical assistance. While effective mitigation strategies exist for some taxonomic groups or fishing gears, the spatial and temporal distribution of many fisheries, and thus the incidence of bycatch, remains difficult to document and monitor consistently. A video of the side event can be accessed here.

边会强调了共同设计全球战略的重要性,以解决“幽灵渔具”及其产生的影响,鼓励粮农组织成员国制定预防、减少和消除“幽灵渔具”的国家计划。会议还提供了机会讨论拟议的兼捕减缓措施是否已有成效,而不减少目标渔获量,同时确定科技援助受益领域,如数据收集、监测或实施。虽然针对生物分类群和渔具已有有效的减缓措施,但由于兼捕,渔业的时空分布仍是难以持续记录和监控。边会视频可访问http://www.fao.org/webcast/home/en/item/4789/icode/

The gathering of key fora such as this are essential to the goals laid out in the UNEP/CMS resolutions on theManagement of Marine Debris (Resolution 12.20) and Bycatch (Resolution 12.22) adopted by the Conference of the Parties at its 12th Meeting. Ghost gear is at least three times more likely to impact marine life, through entanglement, than all other forms of marine debris combined. Approximately 45% of all marine mammal species on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species have been affected by lost or abandoned fishing gear and, according to available global estimates, at least 650,000 marine mammals, 700,000 seabirds and hundreds of thousands of turtles are caught in fishing gear every year. Comprehensive, collaborative approaches are and will continue to be necessary to protect marine migratory species, and to further the work CMS and its daughter agreements are committed to do.

诸如此类重要论坛的召开,对于CMS缔约方大会第十二次会议(COP12)通过的UNEP / CMS关于海洋碎片管理(第12.20号决议)和兼捕(第12.22号决议)的决议所规定的目标至关重要。“幽灵渔具”缠绕对海洋生物的影响至少是其他海洋垃圾的三倍。世界自然保护联盟(IUCN)濒危物种红色名录中大约有45%的海洋哺乳动物物种受到丢失或遗弃的渔具的影响,根据现有的全球预测,每年至少有650,000只海洋哺乳动物、700,000只海鸟和数以千计只海龟被渔具捕获。为保护海洋洄游物种,以及进一步开展CMS及其附属协议承诺,采取全面的合作方式对现在和未来都非常重要。

The side event provided the perfect forum to learn about techniques and approaches that have proven successful as well as to gain insight into the various challenges that countries still face when tackling the issue. CMS involvement was a direct result of the collaboration with the IWC as part of the IWC Bycatch Mitigation Initiative (IWC-BMI). The CMS COP-appointed Councilor for Bycatch, Barry Baker, serves on the BMI Expert Panel, and the Secretariat is part of the Standing Working Group (SWG) on Bycatch under the IWC Conservation Committee. Such collaboration is crucial in addressing and contributing to the implementation of Sustainable Development Goal 14 to conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources, the targets of which address threats from both marine debris and fishing practices.

这次边会提供了完美的论坛,以学习成功的技巧和方法,深入了解不同国家人在解决问题时面临的各种挑战。CMS的参与是和该公约与IWC合作的直接结果,也是IWC兼捕缓解倡议(IWC-BMI)的一部分。CMS COP任命的兼捕倡议委员Barry Baker是兼捕缓解倡议(BMI)的专家小组成员,CMS COP的秘书处也是IWC保护委员会下的兼捕常务工作组(Standing Working Group,简称SWG)。这种合作对于解决和促进实施可持续发展目标14(Sustainable Development Goal 14)、保护和可持续利用海洋及海洋资源至关重要,其目标是解决海洋废弃物和捕捞产生的威胁。

背景小知识

渔业委员会(COFI)是粮农组织理事会的一个附属机构,由粮农组织1965年第十三届会议建立。委员会目前是全球研究重大的国际渔业和水产养殖问题的唯一政府间论坛,定期向全世界各国政府、区域渔业机构、非政府组织、渔工、粮农组织和国际社会提出建议。渔业委员会还被用作谈判全球协定和无约束力文书的一个论坛。

【参考链接】

Side Event on Solutions to Bycatch and Entanglement in Ghost Gear held at FAO COFI33https://www.cms.int/en/news/side-event-solutions-bycatch-and-entanglement-ghost-gear-held-fao-cofi33

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